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Definition - Reference Resources
"The Sentencing Project, a non-profit and non-partisan research organization focused on incarceration reform, released a report in 2009 entitled “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” in which the authors discuss how drug policy contributed to the nation's incarceration crisis. According to the report, the increasingly punitive policies of the 1980s, which focused heavily on mandatory sentences for drug offenses, led to a massive increase in incarceration rates over time. While the prison population sat at around 40,000 in 1980, by 2009 the number had increased 1100 percent to nearly 500,000. Further, the report notes that the number of persons incarcerated for drug offenses in 2009 was higher than the entire prison population in 1980. Despite the fact that studies indicate that most drug users and dealers are white, more than two thirds of all people incarcerated for drugs are Black or Latino/Hispanic."
The Racial Dimension: Drugs and mass incarceration (1995). (2018). In Grey House Publishing (Ed.), Opinions throughout history: Drug use & abuse. Grey House Publishing. Credo Reference: https://muhlenberg.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/greyothdua/the_racial_dimension_drugs_and_mass_incarceration_1995/0?institutionId=4200
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Hundreds of authoritative dictionaries, encyclopedias, fact books, guides, companions and more from respected publishers across dozens of major subject areas.
The Sentencing Project
"Founded in 1986, The Sentencing Project works for a fair and effective U.S. criminal justice system by promoting reforms in sentencing policy, addressing unjust racial disparities and practices, and advocating for alternatives to incarceration."
Prison Policy Initiative
"The non-profit, non-partisan Prison Policy Initiative produces cutting edge research to expose the broader harm of mass criminalization, and then sparks advocacy campaigns to create a more just society"
1995 Report to the Congress: Cocaine and the Federal Sentencing Policy
"This is the United States Sentencing Commission’s first report to Congress on the subject of federal cocaine sentencing policy. Congress directed the United States Sentencing Commission to study federal sentencing policy as it relates to possession and distribution of all forms of cocaine. Specifically, Congress directed the Sentencing Commission to report on the current federal structure of differing penalties for powder cocaine and crack cocaine offenses and to provide recommendations for retention or modification of these differences. (February 1995)"
Academic Search Complete This link opens in a new window
A database of both scholarly and popular publications in a wide variety of disciplines and subject areas, including psychology. Most full text is linked directly in the database; otherwise use the Check for Full Text buttons to check for full text online or in the library.
American Prison Writing Archive
"The American Prison Writing Archive is a place where imprisoned people and prison staff can write about and document their experience. It is a site where all who live or work inside can bear witness to what is working and what is not inside American prisons, thus grounding public debate about the American prison crisis in lived experience."
HeinOnline This link opens in a new window
Fully searchable government document and legal research database. It contains comprehensive coverage from inception of U.S. statutory materials, U.S. Congressional Documents and more than 2,600 scholarly journals. HeinOnline provides topic specific databases including all of the world's constitutions, all U.S. treaties, collections of classic treatises and presidential documents, Criminal Justice, Religion and the Law, and Women and the Law among others. Full text of state and federal case law powered by Fastcase,
PubMed This link opens in a new window
A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed includes over 19 million citations for biomedical articles back to 1948 and links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.
The Journal of Women and Criminal Justice
"The Journal of Women and Criminal Justice features art and writing from justice-involved persons and advocates. Through a combination of personal testimonies and research, The Journal highlights issues related to women and incarceration. "