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Citation Style Guides

Chicago Basics

These guidelines are based on the advice from The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 17th edition, published in 2017. Design and layout of materials is based on Diana Hacker's "Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition" accessed March 2014. This style guide is most often used in courses for History, Humanities, Literature and the Arts.

Chicago has two systems of documentation. One uses Footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or Endnotes (notes at the end of the paper) to cite materials, along with a Bibliography at the end. The other system, Author-Date, uses parenthetical in-text citations and a Bibliography at the end. It is referred to as Author-Date because the in-text citations use (Author's Last Name Date, Page Number) format; ex. (Krahmer 2015, 192).

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style uses two formats: Notes & Bibliography and Author-Date. Make sure you are using the correct format, as there are many differences between them. 

Author-Date Format

Books (general example)

Print

In Text: (Coombs 2010, 45-46)

Bibliography: Coombs, Norman. 2010. Making Online Teaching Accessible: Inclusive Course Design for Students with Disabilities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Electronic/Online

In Text: (Kastner 2013, chap 2)

Kastner, Carolyn. 2013. Jaune Quick-To-See Smith: an American Modernist. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ebrary edition.

Book with 1 Author

In Text: (Early 1997, 172-185)

Early, Frances H. 1997. A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I. Syracuse, N.Y. : Syracuse University Press.

Book with 2 or more Authors

Books with 2-3 authors, include all the authors' names in the notes and bibliography. Books with 4 or more authors, include only the first author's name and then use "et al." in the notes; for the bibliography, list all the authors' names.

In Text: (Bailey, Schneider, and Vander Ark 2013, 128)

Bailey, John, Carri Schneider, and Tom Vander Ark. 2013. Navigating the Digital Shift: Implementation Strategies for Blended and Online Learning. Florida: Digital Learning Now! http://digitallearningnow.com/site/uploads/2014/05/DLN-ebook-PDF.pdf.

Book with an Organization as the author

When the organization is the author, use a shortened version of the organization's name (usually the abbreviation) for the in text citation. Include the abbreviation in the bibliographic entry, and alphabetize your bibliography by the abbreviation rather than the full organization name.

In Text: (NYT 2001, 42)

NYT (New York Times). 2001. 36 Days: The Complete Chronicle of the 2000 Presidential Election Crisis. Times Books.

Book with an Unknown author

Use a shortened version of the title for the in text citation, making sure to include the first word (that is not an article A, An, or The).

In Text: (Beowulf 1892, 175).

Beowulf, An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem. 1892. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co.

Multiple books by the same author (in bibliography)

In the bibliography, when you have several books by the same author, you can replace the author's name with 6 hyphens for all subsequent entries, arranged alphabetically by book title.

Goodman, Nelson. 1965. Fact, Fiction and Forecast. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

------. 1965. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Edited volume without an author

In Text: (Jarrett 2014, 138).

Jarrett, Gene Andrew, ed. 2014. The Wiley Blackwell Anthology of African American Literature. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Edited volume with an author

In Text: (Gatewood 2005, 92).

Gatewood, Charles B. 2005. Lt. Charles Gatewood and His Apache Wars Memoir. Edited by Louis Kraft. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Chapter in an Edited Volume

In Text: (Thoreau 2016, 177-78).

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. "Walking." In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D'Agata, 167-95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Book that has been translated

In Text: (Tolstoy 1982, 392).

Tolstoy, Leo. 1982. War and Peace. Translated by Rosemary Edmonds. New York: Penguin Books.

2nd edition and later editions

In Text: (Nelmes 2012, 56).

Nelmes, Jill, ed. 2012. Introduction to Film Studies. 5th ed. Oxon, NY: Routledge.

Single volume in a multi-volume set

In Text: (Proust 1957, 42).

Proust, Marcel. 1957. Time Regained. Vol. 12 of Remembrance of Things Past. Illustrated ed. London: Chatto & Windus.

Single story in an anthology

In Text: (Heywood 2014, 125).

Heywood, John. 2014. “The Play of the Weather (c. 1533).” In The Oxford Anthology of Tudor Drama, edited by Greg Walker, 118-43. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Quoting from the Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword.

In Text: (Ryan 2013, xix).

Ryan, Alan. 2013. Foreword to Karl Marx, fifth edition, by Isaiah Berlin, xix-xxix. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Republished book

Only use the original publication date in the in text citation if it is important to the context of the paper. Otherwise, just use the date of the reprint.

In Text where original date is important: (Daniken [1969] 1980, 78).

In Text where original date is NOT important: (Daniken 1980, 78).

Daniken, Erich von. (1969) 1980. Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past. Reprint, New York: Berkley Publishing.

Book with a title in its title

In Text: (Sarat and Umphrey 2013, 15).

Sarat, Austin, and Martha Merrill Umphrey. 2013. Reimagining "To Kill a Mockingbird:" Family, Community, and the Possibility of Equal Justice Under Law. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Single letter in a published collection of primary materials

You should work in the original date of the letter into your text, and then use the date of the book collection in the citation.

In Text: In Jean-Paul's letter to Simone on March 19, 1940 (Sartre 1983, 116), he said...

In Text: Sartre (1983, 116) said to Simone de Beauvoir on March 19, 1940...

Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1983. Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940-1963. Edited by Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Lee Fahnestock and Norman MacAfee. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Single book in a series

In Text: (Wilder 2012, 17).

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. 2012. Little House in the Big Woods. The Little House Books. New York, NY: Library of America.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry

For well-known items like Britannica and Websters, include the edition rather than year, and do not include it in the bibliography. Use the abbreviation of "s.v." to signify the title of the encyclopedia entry. (S.V. stands for sub verbo or "under the word.") Include the author of a signed encyclopedia article. 

In Text: (Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed).

In Text: (Oxford Dictionary 2013).

Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations. 2013. Fifth ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. s.v. "Stigma."

In Text: (Wikipedia 2015).

Wikipedia. 2015. s.v. "Magna Carta." Last modified October 19. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta.

In Text: (Ochner 2002, 329).

Ochner, Nobuko Miyama. 2002. "Enchi Fumiko." In Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 329-330. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

Sacred or religious texts

Sacred or religious texts are not included in the bibliography. (see also the SBL Handbook of Style or History of Religions for more texts.)

In Text: [Torah/Bible] (Matthew 10:16, KJV).

In Text: [Qur'an] (Qur'an 5:8).

In Text: [Mishnah] (m.Berakhot 1:1-2). 

In Text: [Vedas] (Rig Veda 10.90.12).

Quoting a source that is quoted in another source

If the original source is not available, then use "quoted in" for the in text citation with some message in the text about the original source. Cite only the secondary source in the bibliography.

In Text: Anne Savage (quoted in Brownsworth 2014, 70) translated the passage as...

Brownworth, Lars. 2014. The Sea Wolves: A History of the Vikings. United Kingdom: Crux Publishing.

Citing several references in the same in text citation

Your in text citation should include all the resources you cited for that sentence, but individual resources should be listed separately in your bibliography.

In Text: (Nelmes 2012; Cox 2009; Smith 2015).

Journal Articles (print and online)

Article in a print journal

If there are more than 3 authors, just use the first author's last name and "et al." in the In Text citation. If there is more than one article where the first author is the same but the subsequent authors are not, and they are all published in the same year, then use a second author to differentiate them. ex. (Byford, Collins et al. 2009) and (Byford, Smith et al. 2009).

In Text: (Byford 2012, 725).

Byford, Andy. 2012. "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain." Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4: 715-735.

Article in an online journal

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the URL of the article. Page numbers should be included if they are available. If there are no page numbers, use some sort of locator in your note such as paragraph number or subheading.

In Text: (Subotic 2013, 273).

Subotic, Jelena. 2013. "Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans." Studies in Social Justice 7, no. 2: 265-283. http://brock.scholarsportal.info/journals/index.php/SSJ/article/view/1047.

Journal article from an Article Database (such as Academic Search Premier or JSTOR)

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If neither are available, then you can use the name of the database plus the number assigned to the article by the database. Page numbers should be included if they are available. 

In Text: (Byford 2012, 725).

Byford, Andy. 2012. "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain." Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4: 715-735. doi:10.1080/09668136.2012.660764.

Article in a print popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as Cosmo or People)

In Text: (Koonse 2015, 26).

Koonse, Emma. 2015. “Mind, Body & Spirit.” Publisher’s Weekly, September 14: 25-28.

Article in an online popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as cosmopolitan.com)

For online magazines, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If page numbers are included, use them; otherwise they are not required.

In Text: (Gorenstein 2015).

Gorenstein, Colin. 2015. "Jon Stewart Hammers GOP Over Incoherent Iran Warmongering." Salon, April 15. http://www.salon.com/2015/04/15/jon_stewart_hammers_gop_over_incoherent_iran_warmongering/.

Article in a popular (non-scholarly) magazine from an Article Database

For online magazines, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If neither are available, then you can use the name of the database plus the number assigned to the article by the database. If page numbers are included, use them; otherwise they are not required. 

In Text: (Keating 2015, 58).

Keating, Caitlin. 2015. "Hope After Tragedy Raising Quadruplets on my Own." People 83, no. 13, March 30: 58-61. Academic Search Premier (101639618).

Book review

In Text: (Wong 2010, 90)

Wong, Kate. 2010. "The Changing Arctic Landscape." Review of The Changing Arctic Landscape, by Ken Tape. Scientific American 303 (2): 90. Academic Search Premier (52112108).

Letter to the editor

Only refer to it as "letter to the editor," and not by any titles given to the letter by the publication.

In Text: (Ross 2015).

Ross, Martin E. 2015. Letter to the editor. New York Times, October 5.

Article in a print newspaper

Use the section letter or number if available. Page numbers are not needed.

In Text: (Rubin 2015).

Rubin, Alissa J. 2015. “Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens.” New York Times, October 5, Late ed.: A1.

Article in an online newspaper

Do not use the full URL if it is very long. Don't use page numbers, even if they are included.

In Text: (Rubin 2015).

Rubin, Alissa J. 2015. “Doctors Without Borders Says It Is Leaving Kunduz After Strike on Hospital.” New York Times, October 4, http://nytimes.com.

Newspaper article from a database

Use whatever identifying information you have from the database such as DOI, Database & the number assigned to it, or a "stable" or "persistent" URL.

In Text: (Rubin 2015).

Rubin, Alissa J. 2015. “Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens.” New York Times, October 5, LexisNexis Academic.

Newspaper article with an Unknown Author

If the article is unsigned or the author unknown, then use a short version of the title that includes the first word not counting any articles (a, an, the). The year should come directly after the title in the bibliographic entry.

In Text: ("Rein in Online" 2015).

"Rein in Online Fantasy Sports Gambling." 2015. New York Times, October 5, sec. A22.

In Text: ("5 Ways" 2015).

"5 Ways to Save on Holiday Airfare." 2015. New York Times, October 22, http://nytimes.com.

Other Sources

Website

Include an author if given, title of the site, sponsor if available, date of publication/modification (if available; if not available, then use the accessed date), and URL. Don't italicize the title of the site unless it's an online book or periodical. If the website has a print counterpart, the title is in italics (The New York Times, for example). If the website does not have a print counterpart, the site is not in italics. Use quotemarks for sections or individual pages within a website.

In Text: (Northern New York Library Network 2015).

Northern New York Library Network. 2015. "Upcoming Events." Last updated October 13. http://nnyln.org/events.html.

In Text: (Howarth 2015).

Howarth, Paul. 2015. The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive. Boise State University. Last updated April 3. http://math.boisestate.edu/GaS/.

Single article, page or story from a website

In Text: (Banerjee 2007).

Banerjee, Jacqueline. 2007. "Queen's College and the "Ladies' College"." Victorian Web. Last modified June 14. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/education/ulondon/6.html.

Online discussion boards or archived listservs

In Text: (Watt 2015).

Watt, Douglas F. 2015. “Re: Wildlife Lenses for Sony A77,” Digital Photography Discussions Thread. Digital Photography Review. January 5. http://www.dpreview.com/forums/post/55041898

Personal communication (including non-public emails)

Personal communications are not included in the bibliography. Instead of an in text citation using parenthesis, you can use a purely textual reference to the item.

In Text: In an email to the author on October 8, 2015, Jesi Buell said...

In Text: (Jesi Buell, e-mail message to the author, October 8, 2015).

In Text: (Jesi Buell, pers. comm.).

Blog post (blogger, wordpress, tumblr, etc.)

You should italicize the name of the blog, with "(blog)" listed after it if the name doesn't include "blog" to differentiate it from a regular website. For a comment on a post, you should use a textual reference to signal that it is a comment, then cite the original post. If the author is unknown or uses a pseudonym to refer to a group posting on a single blog, you can use that pseudonym/username instead.

In Text: (Nye 2011).

Nye, Bill. 2011. "Hubble's Millionth Observation." Your Place in Space (blog). The Planetary Society, July 5, http://www.planetary.org/blogs/bill-nye/3088.html.

In Text: In a comment on June 14, 2015, Bob Ware said... (Nye 2015).

Nye, Bill. 2015. "Tonight I Glimpsed LightSail." Your Place in Space (blog). The Planetary Society, June 14, http://www.planetary.org/blogs/bill-nye/20150614-tonight-i-glimpsed-lightsail.html.

In Text: (medievalpoc 2015).

medievalpoc. 2015. “Pieter Brueghel the Younger.” People of Color in European Art History (blog). Accessed October 21, http://medievalpoc.tumblr.com/post/130342024617/pieter-brueghel-the-younger-die-kreuztragung.

Facebook

In Text: (Truty 2016).

Michele Truty, "We do need a gender-neutral pronoun," Facebook, August 24, 2016, https://facebook.com/micheletruty/posts/1032352213.

In Text: On August 24, 2016, Michele Truty pointed out the need for gender-neutral pronouns in our language on her Facebook account. (Truty 2016).

Twitter (or other microblog like Sina Weibo)

In Text: (Swift 2017).

Taylor Swift (@taylorswift13), "Look what you made me do," Twitter, October 13, 2017, 10:00 p.m., https://twitter.com/TaylorSwift/status/843848339292

Podcast

Treat podcast episodes like a single story from a website, but add (if available) the author's/speaker's name(s), title of the podcast, and episode number.

In Text: (Private Cabin 2015).

Private Cabin. 2015. "Freddy vs. Jason." Episode 221. We Hate Movies. Podcast audio. October 20. http://www.whmpodcast.com/.

Online video (such as YouTube)

In Text: (CBS News 2012).

CBS News. 2012. “Khan Academy: The Future of Education?” YouTube, March 11. https://youtu.be/zxJgPHM5NYI.

In Text: ("Chopin" 2015).

"Chopin - Complete Nocturnes." 2015. YouTube, May 8. https://youtu.be/liTSRH4fix4

Film (DVD, Blu-Ray, Streaming)

Include all information important to identifying the film, such as writer, director (whichever is more important for your paper) and season/episode number for TV shows. If you are referring to a specific DVD release, include the original year of release for the film as well as the DVD release year. Citations should privilege the original release date over the digital one.

In Text: (Dark Knight Rises 2012).

The Dark Knight Rises. 2012. Directed by Christopher Nolen. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment. DVD.

In Text: (Gimple 2014).

Gimple, Scott M. 2014. "No Sanctuary." The Walking Dead season 5, episode 1. Directed by Greg Nicotero. Aired October 12. Anchor Bay Entertainment, 2015. DVD.

In Text: (Vertigo 1958).

Vertigo. 1958. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Universal City, CA: Universal, 2008. DVD.

In Text: (Nightmare Before Christmas 1993).

The Nightmare Before Christmas. 1993. Directed by Henry Selick. Netflix.com.

Sound recording (LP, CD, MP3, Streaming)

Use the conductor, composer, or performer as the author, depending on which one is more important for your citation. Include any identifying information such as orchestra, conductor, featured performers, recording date, publication year, format, number of discs, and publisher number if available. If this is from the Colgate collection, consult the library catalog record for basic important information to include. Audiobooks and other published recordings should be treated the same way as musical recordings.

In Text: (James 1990).

James, Etta. 1990. Stickin' to my Guns. Island Record 842 936-1, 33 1/3 rpm.

In Text: (Mozart 1999).

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. 1999. Piano Concertos K. 271, 453, 466; Adagio and fugue K. 546. Conducted by Dennis Russell Davies. Recorded May 1996 and March 1998. Muenchen: ECM Records 289 462 651-2, 2 compact discs.

In Text: (Puccini 2005).

Puccini, Giacomo. 2005. "Nessun Dorma." From Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor). London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Zubin Mehta. Luciano Pavarotti - The Best. Decca, MP3 file. Downloaded May 15, 2009. iTunes.

In Text: (Chopin 2015).

Chopin, Frederick. 2015. Nocturn Op. 55 No. 10. Performed by Robin Scheidegger. Streaming Audio. Accessed October 21. Soundcloud.com.

In Text: (Brooks 2013).

Brooks, Max. 2013. World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War. Performed by F. Murray Abraham, Alan Alda, Rene Auberjonois, et al. Complete edition. New York: Random House Audio, 10 compact discs.

Musical Score or composition

In Text: (Mozart 1951).

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. 1951. The Marriage of Figaro: An Opera in Four Acts. Libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer.

Artwork

Include as much information as you can, including the medium, date of creation, size of artwork, museum location, database & database number, and URL. If you are citing an image out of a book, cite it as a "single story in an anthology."

In Text: (Picasso 1905-6).

Picasso, Pablo. 1905-6. Gertrude Stein.  Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.

In Text: (Abbott 1927).

Abbott, Berenice. 1927. Julien Levy. Gelatin silver print. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/282740.

In Text: (Durer 1520).

Durer, Albrecht. 1520. Head of a Woman. British Museum, London, UK, ARTstor (33-01-09/58).

Performance

In Text: (Liu 2015).

Liu, Christina. 2015. This is not a Play about Sex. Directed by Charity Whyte and Providence Ryan. Colgate University Community, Hamilton, NY, October 3.

Government document

In Text: (US Senate 2015).

United States Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. 2015. The Case for Climate Change Action: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 108th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC: GPO.

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

If the thesis or dissertation has a preferred citation, use it. Otherwise include the DOI or URL as available. If found through a commercial database, then just use the name of the database and any identification numbers.

In Text: (Navarro 2006).

Navarro, Emily. 2006. "SimSE: A Software Engineering Simulation Environment for Software Process Education." PhD diss., University of California, Irvine. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.134.5381&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

In Text: (Patrick 1966).

Patrick, G. S. 1966. "The Impact of Managerial Ability and Capital Structure on Farm Firm Growth." M.S. thesis, Purdue University Library, June. ProQuest (AAT 9666404).

In Text: (Stegemoeller  2005, 23).

Stegemoeller, Rachel. 2005. "Shidai Manhua and the Challenges of Modernity." B.A. thesis, Colgate University, Spring.

Unpublished Manuscript from the Colgate Archives

If you are only citing one item from a collection, then give the full citation to the specific item in the bibliography. If you're citing several things from the same collection, then use the text to give the details of the item with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

In Text: (Dunlap 1962).

Dunlap, Jr., Orrin E. 1962. “Communications in Space.” M2001, Orrin E. Dunlap, Jr. papers. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Unpublished Photograph from the Colgate Archives

If you are only citing one item from a collection, then give the full citation to the specific item in the bibliography. If you're citing several things from the same collection, then use the text to give the details of the item with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

In Text: In an undated black and white photograph of Willow Path (Buildings file A1000), the geese appear prominently, while an image from 1952 (Buildings file A10001) shows that they are missing.

Buildings and Grounds Collection. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Unpublished Letters and Correspondence in the Colgate Archives

If you are only citing one item from a collection, then give the full citation to the specific item in the bibliography. If you're citing several things from the same collection, then use the text to give the details of the item with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

In Text: William White wrote in a letter to L. York on February 7, 1964 (York M2027) to say...

York Family Papers. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Colgate Yearbooks and published primary materials in the Colgate Archives

In Text: (Colgate University 1969, 53).

Colgate University. 1969. Board of Trustees Minutes, vol. 14, 1966-1969. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press.

In Text: (Colgate University 1934, 90).

Colgate University. 1934. Salmagundi, 1934. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press.

In Text: (Colgate University 1937, 20).

Colgate University. 1937. Salmagundi, 1937. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press. http://diglib.colgate.edu

Lectures, including presentations and course lectures

For course lectures, use the name of the course as the name of the presentation.

In Text: (Rankine 2015).

Rankine, Claudia. 2015. "Citizen: An American Lyric." Poetry reading. Colgate University. Hamilton, NY, October 21.

In Text: (Rios-Rojas 2015).

Rios-Rojas, Anna. 2015. "American School." Class lecture. Colgate University. Hamilton, NY, November 3.

In Text: (Radnor 2015).

Radnor, Josh. 2015. "An Evening with Josh Radnor: Screenwriting Master Class." Lecture. Andrew W Mellon Foundation and Central New York Humanities Corridor. Hamilton, NY, September 24.

Datasets

In Text: (Milberger 2002).

Milberger, Sharon. 2002. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Detroit: Wayne State University. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414.v1.

Notes & Bibliography Format

Books (general example)

Print

Note: 1. Norman Coombs, Making Online Teaching Accessible: Inclusive Course Design for Students with Disabilities (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010), 45-46.

Bibliography: Coombs, Norman, Making Online Teaching Accessible: Inclusive Course Design for Students with Disabilities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.

Electronic/Online

2. Carolyn Kastner, Jaune Quick-To-See Smith: an American Modernist (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2013), ebrary edition, chap 2.

Kastner, Carolyn. Jaune Quick-To-See Smith: an American Modernist. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2013. ebrary edition.

Book with 1 author

3. Frances H. Early, A World Without War: how U.S. feminists and pacifists resisted World War I (Syracuse, N.Y. : Syracuse University Press, 1997), 172-185.

Early, Frances H. A World Without War: how U.S. feminists and pacifists resisted World War I. Syracuse, N.Y. : Syracuse University Press, 1997.

Book with 2 or more authors

Books with 2-3 authors, include all the authors' names in the notes and bibliography. Books with 4 or more authors, include only the first author's name and then use "et al." in the notes; for the bibliography, list all the authors' names.

4. John Bailey, Carri Schneider, and Tom Vander Ark. Navigating the Digital Shift: Implementation Strategies for Blended and Online Learning (Florida: Digital Learning Now!, 2013), 128, http://digitallearningnow.com/site/uploads/2014/05/DLN-ebook-PDF.pdf.

Bailey, John, Carri Schneider, and Tom Vander Ark. Navigating the Digital Shift: Implementation Strategies for Blended and Online Learning. Florida: Digital Learning Now!, 2013. http://digitallearningnow.com/site/uploads/2014/05/DLN-ebook-PDF.pdf.

Book with an Organization as the author

5. New York Times, 36 Days: The Complete Chronicle of the 2000 Presidential Election Crisis (Time Books, 2001), 42.

New York Times. 36 Days: The Complete Chronicle of the 2000 Presidential Election Crisis. Times Books, 2001.

Book with an Unknown author

6. Beowulf, An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem (Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1892), 175.

Beowulf, An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1892.

Multiple books by the same author (in bibliography)

In the bibliography, when you have several books by the same author, you can replace the author's name with 6 hyphens for all subsequent entries, arranged alphabetically by book title.

Goodman, Nelson. Fact, Fiction and Forecast. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

------. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968.

Edited volume without an author

8. Gene Andrew Jarrett, ed., The Wiley Blackwell Anthology of African American Literature (Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014), 138.

Jarrett, Gene Andrew, ed. The Wiley Blackwell Anthology of African American Literature. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Edited volume with an author

9. Charles B. Gatewood, Lt. Charles Gatewood and His Apache Wars Memoir, ed. Louis Kraft (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005), 92.

Gatewood, Charles B. Lt. Charles Gatewood and His Apache Wars Memoir. Edited by Louis Kraft. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.

Book that has been translated

10. Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, trans. Rosemary Edmonds (New York: Penguin Books, 1982), 392.

Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Rosemary Edmonds. New York: Penguin Books, 1982.

2nd edition and later editions

11. Jill Nelmes, ed., Introduction to Film Studies, 5th ed. (Oxon, NY: Routledge, 2012), 56.

Nelmes, Jill, ed. Introduction to Film Studies. 5th ed. Oxon, NY: Routledge, 2012.

Single volume in a multi-volume set

12. Marcel Proust, Time Regained, vol. 12 of Remembrance of Things Past, illustrated ed. (London: Chatto & Windus, 1957), 42.

Proust, Marcel. Time Regained. Vol. 12 of Remembrance of Things Past. Illustrated ed. London: Chatto & Windus, 1957.

Single story in an anthology

13. John Heywood, "The Play of the Weather (c. 1533), in The Oxford Anthology of Tudor Drama, ed. Greg Walker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 125.

Heywood, John. “The Play of the Weather (c. 1533).” In The Oxford Anthology of Tudor Drama, edited by Greg Walker, 118-43. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Quoting from the Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword.

14. Alan Ryan, foreword to Karl Marx, fifth edition, by Isaiah Berlin (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), xix.

Ryan, Alan. Foreword to Karl Marx, fifth edition, by Isaiah Berlin, xix-xxix. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Republished book

15. Erich von Daniken, Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past, (1969; repr., New York: Berkley Publishing, 1980), 78.

Daniken, Erich von. Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past. 1969. Reprint, New York: Berkley Publishing, 1980.

Book with a title in its title

16. Austin Sarat and Martha Merrill Umphrey, Reimagining "To Kill a Mockingbird:" Family, Community and the Possibility of Equal Justice Under Law (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2013), 15.

Sarat, Austin, and Martha Merrill Umphrey. Reimagining "To Kill a Mockingbird:" Family, Community, and the Possibility of Equal Justice Under Law. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2013.

Single letter in a published collection of primary materials

17. Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 19 March 1940, in Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940-1963, ed. Simone de Beauvoir, trans. Lee Fahnestock and Norman MacAfee (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983), 116.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Quiet Moments in a War: The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, 1940-1963. Edited by Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Lee Fahnestock and Norman MacAfee. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983.

Single book in a series

18. Laura Ingalls Wilder, Little House in the Big Woods, The Little House Books (New York, NY: Library of America, 2012), 17.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods. The Little House Books. New York, NY: Library of America, 2012.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry

Well-known encyclopedias like Britannica or dictionaries like Websters' don't require publication information, but you need to include the edition. They are often not included in the bibliography, but check with your professor. Use the abbreviation of "s.v." to signify the title of the encyclopedia entry. (S.V. stands for sub verbo or "under the word.") Include the author of a signed encyclopedia article. 

19. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Magna Carta."

19. Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations, fifth ed., 2013, s.v. "stigma."

19. Wikipedia, s.v. "Magna Carta," last modified October 19, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta.

19. Nobuko Miyama Ochner, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, vol. 2, ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002) 329, s.v. "Enchi Fumiko."

Ochner, Nobuko Miyama. "Enchi Fumiko." In Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 329-330. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.

Sacred or religious texts

Sacred or religious texts are not included in the bibliography. (see also the SBL Handbook of Style or History of Religions for more texts.)

[Torah/Bible] 20. Matt. 10:16 (King James Version).

[Qur'an] 20. Qur'an 5:8.

[Mishnah] 20. m. Ber. 1:1-2. 

[Vedas] 20. RV 10.90.12.

Quoting a source that is quoted in another source

21. Anne Savage, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, trans. Anne Savage (Wayne: BHB International Inc, 1997), 41, quoted in Lars Brownworth, The Sea Wolves: A History of the Vikings (United Kingdom: Crux Publishing, 2014), 70.

Savage, Anne, ed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Translated by Anne Savage. Wayne: BHB International Inc, 1997, 41. Quoted in Lars Brownworth. The Sea Wolves: A History of the Vikings. United Kingdom: Crux Publishing, 2014, 70.

Journal Articles (print and online)

Article in a print journal

22. Andy Byford, "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain." Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4 (2012): 725.

Byford, Andy. "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain." Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4 (2012): 715-735.

Article in an online journal

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the URL of the article. Page numbers should be included if they are available. If there are no page numbers, use some sort of locator in your note such as paragraph number or subheading.

23. Jelena Subotic, "Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans," Studies in Social Justice 7, no. 2 (2013): 273, http://brock.scholarsportal.info/journals/index.php/SSJ/article/view/1047.

Subotic, Jelena. "Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans." Studies in Social Justice 7, no. 2 (2013): 265-283. http://brock.scholarsportal.info/journals/index.php/SSJ/article/view/1047.

Journal article from an Article Database (such as Academic Search Premier or JSTOR)

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If neither are available, then you can use the name of the database plus the number assigned to the article by the database. Page numbers should be included if they are available. If there are no page numbers, use some sort of locator in your note such as paragraph number or subheading.

24. Andy Byford, "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain," Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4 (2012): 725, doi:10.1080/09668136.2012.660764.

Byford, Andy. "The Russian Diaspora in International Relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain." Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 4 (2012): 715-735. doi:10.1080/09668136.2012.660764.

Article in a print popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as Cosmo or People)

25. Emma Koonse, "Mind, Body & Spirit," Publisher's Weekly, September 14, 2015: 26.

Koonse, Emma. “Mind, Body & Spirit.” Publisher’s Weekly, September 14, 2015: 25-28.

Article in an online popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as cosmopolitan.com)

For online magazines, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If page numbers are included, use them; otherwise they are not required.

26. Colin Gorenstein, "Jon Stewart Hammers GOP Over Incoherent Iran Warmongering," Salon, April 15, 2015, http://www.salon.com/2015/04/15/jon_stewart_hammers_gop_over_incoherent_iran_warmongering/.

Gorenstein, Colin. "Jon Stewart Hammers GOP Over Incoherent Iran Warmongering." Salon, April 15, 2015. http://www.salon.com/2015/04/15/jon_stewart_hammers_gop_over_incoherent_iran_warmongering/.

Article in a popular (non-scholarly) magazine from an Article Database

For online magazines, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If neither are available, then you can use the name of the database plus the number assigned to the article by the database. If page numbers are included, use them; otherwise they are not required.

27. Caitlin Keating, "Hope After Tragedy Raising Quadruplets on my Own," People 83, no. 13, March 30, 2015: 58, Academic Search Premier (101639618).

Keating, Caitlin. "Hope After Tragedy Raising Quadruplets on my Own." People 83, no. 13, March 30, 2015: 58-61. Academic Search Premier (101639618).

Book review

28. Kate Wong, "The Changing Arctic Landscape," review of The Changing Arctic Landscape, by Ken Tape, Scientific American 303, no. 2 (2010): 90. Academic Search Premier (52112108).

Wong, Kate. "The Changing Arctic Landscape." Review of The Changing Arctic Landscape, by Ken Tape. Scientific American 303, no. 2 (2010): 90. Academic Search Premier (52112108).

Letter to the editor

Only refer to it as "letter to the editor," and not by any titles given to the letter by the publication.

29. Martin E. Ross, letter to the editor, New York Times, October 5, 2015.

Ross, Martin E. Letter to the editor. New York Times, October 5, 2015.

Article in a print newspaper

Use the section letter or number if available. Page numbers are not needed.

30. Alissa J. Rubin, "Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens," New York Times, October 5, 2015, Late ed.: A1.

Rubin, Alissa J. “Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens.” New York Times, October 5, 2015, Late ed.: A1.

Article in an online newspaper

Do not use the full URL if it is very long. Don't use page numbers, even if they are included.

31. Alissa J. Rubin, "Doctors Without Borders Says It Is Leaving Kunduz After Strike on Hospital," New York Times, October 4, 2015, http://nytimes.com.

Rubin, Alissa J. “Doctors Without Borders Says It Is Leaving Kunduz After Strike on Hospital.” New York Times, October 4, 2015, http://nytimes.com.

Newspaper article from a database

Use whatever identifying information you have from the database such as DOI, Database & the number assigned to it, or a "stable" or "persistent" URL.

32. Alissa J. Rubin, "Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens," New York Times, October 5, 2015, LexisNexis Academic.

Rubin, Alissa J. “Doctors Without Borders Exits Afghan City as Fight Worsens.” New York Times, October 5, 2015, LexisNexis Academic.

Newspaper article with an Unknown Author

Unsigned articles, features, and editorials do not necessarily need a bibliographic citation. If a bibliography is required by your professor, then the name of the newspaper can be used in place of the author.

33. “Rein in Online Fantasy Sports Gambling,” New York Times, October 5, 2015, sec. A22.

New York Times. "Rein in Online Fantasy Sports Gambling." October 5, 2015, sec. A22.

33. "5 Ways to Save on Holiday Airfare," New York Times, October 22, 2015, http://nytimes.com.

New York Times. "5 Ways to Save on Holiday Airfare." October 22, 2015, http://nytimes.com.

Other Sources

Website

Include an author if given, title of the site, sponsor if available, date of publication/modification (if available; if not available, then use the accessed date), and URL. Don't italicize the title of the site unless it's an online book or periodical. If the website has a print counterpart, the title is in italics (The New York Times, for example). If the website does not have a print counterpart, the site is not in italics. Use quotemarks for sections or individual pages within a website.

34. Northern New York Library Network, last updated October 13, 2015, http://nnyln.org/.

Northern New York Library Network. Last updated October 13, 2015. http://nnyln.org/.

34. Paul Howarth, The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, Boise State University, last updated April 3, 2015, http://math.boisestate.edu/GaS/.

Howarth, Paul. The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive. Boise State University. Last updated April 3, 2015. http://math.boisestate.edu/GaS/.

Single article, page or story from a website

35. Jacqueline Banerjee, "Queen's College and the "Ladies' College"," Victorian Web, last modified June 14, 2007, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/education/ulondon/6.html.

Banerjee, Jacqueline. "Queen's College and the "Ladies' College"." Victorian Web. Last modified June 14, 2007. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/education/ulondon/6.html.

Online discussion boards or archived listservs

Discussion boards and archived listservs are not included in the bibliography. URLs should be included.

36. Douglas F. Watt, “Re: Wildlife Lenses for Sony A77,” Digital Photography Discussions Thread. Digital Photography Review. Posted January 5, 2015. http://www.dpreview.com/forums/post/55041898

Personal communication (including non-public emails)

Personal communications are not included in the bibliography.

37. Jesi Buell, e-mail message to the author, October 8, 2015.

Blog post (blogger, wordpress, tumblr, etc.)

You should italicize the name of the blog, with "(blog)" listed after it if the name doesn't include "blog" to differentiate it from a regular website. You do not need to list the blog post in your bibliography, unless you cite it frequently--then you may decide to cite the blog as a whole in the bibliography.

38. Bill Nye, "Hubble's Millionth Observation," Your Place in Space (blog), The Planetary Society, July 5, 2011, http://www.planetary.org/blogs/bill-nye/3088.html.

38. Bob Ware, June 14, 2015 (06:52 CDT), comment on Bill Nye, "Tonight I Glimpsed LightSail," Your Place in Space (blog), The Planetary Society, June 14, 2015, http://www.planetary.org/blogs/bill-nye/20150614-tonight-i-glimpsed-lightsail.html.

Nye, Bill. Your Place in Space (blog). http://www.planetary.org/blogs/bill-nye/.

38. medievalpoc, “Pieter Brueghel the Younger,” People of Color in European Art History (blog), accessed October 21, 2015, http://medievalpoc.tumblr.com/post/130342024617/pieter-brueghel-the-younger-die-kreuztragung.

Facebook

Private content, including direct messages, should be cited as form of personal communication.

39. Michele Truty, "We do need a gender-neutral pronoun," Facebook, August 24, 2016, https://facebook.com/micheletruty/posts/1032352213.

Twitter (or other microblog like Sina Weibo)

Private content, including direct messages, should be cited as form of personal communication.

40. Taylor Swift (@taylorswift13), "Look what you made me do," Twitter, October 13, 2017, 10:00 p.m., https://twitter.com/TaylorSwift/status/843848339292.

Podcast

Treat podcast episodes like a single story from a website, but add (if available) the author's/speaker's name(s), title of the podcast, and episode number.

41. Private Cabin, "Freddy vs. Jason," Episode 221, We Hate Movies, podcast audio, October 20, 2015, http://www.whmpodcast.com/.

Private Cabin. "Freddy vs. Jason." Episode 221. We Hate Movies. Podcast audio. October 20, 2015. http://www.whmpodcast.com/.

Online video (such as YouTube)

42. CBS News, “Khan Academy: The Future of Education?” YouTube, March 11, 2012. https://youtu.be/zxJgPHM5NYI.

CBS News. “Khan Academy: The Future of Education?” YouTube, March 11, 2012. https://youtu.be/zxJgPHM5NYI.

42. "Chopin - Complete Nocturnes," YouTube, May 8, 2015. https://youtu.be/liTSRH4fix4

"Chopin - Complete Nocturnes." YouTube, May 8, 2015. https://youtu.be/liTSRH4fix4

Film (DVD, Blu-Ray, Streaming)

Include all information important to identifying the film, such as writer and season/episode number for TV shows. If you are referring to a specific DVD release, include the original year of release for the film as well as the DVD release year.

43. The Dark Knight Rises, directed by Christopher Nolen (Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment, 2012). DVD.

The Dark Knight Rises. Directed by Christopher Nolen. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment, 2012. DVD.

43. Scott M. Gimple, "No Sanctuary," The Walking Dead season 5, episode 1, directed by Greg Nicotero, aired October 12, 2014 (Anchor Bay Entertainment, 2015), DVD.

Gimple, Scott M. "No Sanctuary." The Walking Dead season 5, episode 1. Directed by Greg Nicotero. Aired October 12, 2014. Anchor Bay Entertainment, 2015. DVD.

43. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1958; Universal City, CA: Universal, 2008). DVD

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1958; Universal City, CA: Universal, 2008. DVD

43. The Nightmare Before Christmas, directed by Henry Selick (1993). Netflix.com.

The Nightmare Before Christmas. Directed by Henry Selick. 1993. Netflix.com.

Sound recording (LP, CD, MP3, Streaming)

Use the conductor, composer, or performer as the author, depending on which one is more important for your citation. Include any identifying information such as orchestra, conductor, featured performers, recording date, publication year, format, number of discs, and publisher number if available. If this is from the Colgate collection, consult the library catalog record for basic important information to include. Audiobooks and other published recordings should be treated the same way as musical recordings.

44. Etta James, Stickin' to my Guns, Island Record 842 936-1, 1990, 33 1/3 rpm.

James, Etta. Stickin' to my Guns. Island Record 842 936-1, 1990, 33 1/3 rpm.

44. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Piano Concertos K. 271, 453, 466; Adagio and fugue K. 546, conducted by Dennis Russell Davies, recorded on May 1996 and March 1998, Muenchen: ECM Records 289 462 651-2, 1999, 2 compact discs.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Piano Concertos K. 271, 453, 466; Adagio and fugue K. 546. Conducted by Dennis Russell Davies. Recorded May 1996 and March 1998. Muenchen: ECM Records 289 462 651-2, 1999, 2 compact discs.

44. Giacomo Puccini, “Nessun Dorma,” from Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor), London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by
Zubin Mehta, Luciano Pavarotti - The Best, Decca, 2005, MP3 file, downloaded May 12, 2009, iTunes.

Puccini, Giacomo. "Nessun Dorma." From Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor). London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Zubin Mehta. Luciano Pavarotti - The Best. Decca 2005, MP3 file. Downloaded May 15, 2009. iTunes.

44. Frederick Chopin, Nocturn Op. 55 No. 10, performed by Robin Scheidegger, streaming audio, accessed October 21, 2015. Soundcloud.com.

Chopin, Frederick. Nocturn Op. 55 No. 10. Performed by Robin Scheidegger. Streaming Audio. Accessed October 21, 2015. Soundcloud.com.

44. Max Brooks, World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War, performed by F. Murray Abraham, et al., complete edition, New York: Random House Audio, 2013, 10 compact discs.

Brooks, Max. World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War. Performed by F. Murray Abraham, Alan Alda, Rene Auberjonois, et al. Complete edition. New York: Random House Audio, 2013, 10 compact discs.

Musical Score or composition

45. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro: An Opera in Four Acts, libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte, English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Schirmer, 1951.)

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro: An Opera in Four Acts. Libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951.

Artwork

Include as much information as you can, including the medium, date of creation, size of artwork, museum location, database & database number, and URL. If you are citing an image out of a book, cite it as a "single story in an anthology."

46. Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein, oil on canvas, 1905-6, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.

Picasso, Pablo.  Gertrude Stein.  Oil on canvas.  1905-6. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.

46. Berenice Abbott, Julien Levy, gelatin silver print, 1927, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/282740.

Abbott, Berenice. Julien Levy. Gelatin silver print. 1927. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/282740.

46. Albrecht Durer, Head of a Woman, 1520, British Museum, London, UK, ARTstor (33-01-09/58).

Durer, Albrecht. Head of a Woman. 1520. British Museum, London, UK, ARTstor (33-01-09/58).

Performance

47. Christina Liu, This is not a Play about Sex, directed by Charity Whyte and Providence Ryan, Colgate University Community, Hamilton, NY, October 3, 2015.

Liu, Christina. This is not a Play about Sex. Directed by Charity Whyte and Providence Ryan. Colgate University Community, Hamilton, NY, October 3, 2015.

Government document

48. United States Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, The Case for Climate Change Action: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 108th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, DC: GPO, 2015).

United States Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The Case for Climate Change Action: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 108th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC: GPO, 2015.

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

If the thesis or dissertation has a preferred citation, use it. Otherwise include the DOI or URL as available. If found through a commercial database, then just use the name of the database and any identification numbers.

49. Emily Navarro, "SimSE: A Software Engineering Simulation Environment for Software Process Education" (PhD diss., University of California, Irvine, 2006), 135, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.134.5381&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Navarro, Emily. "SimSE: A Software Engineering Simulation Environment for Software Process Education." PhD diss., University of California, Irvine, 2006. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.134.5381&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

49. G. S. Patrick, "The Impact of Managerial Ability and Capital Structure on Farm Firm Growth" (M.S. thesis, Purdue University Library, June 1966), 53-55, ProQuest (AAT 9666404). 

Patrick, G. S. "The Impact of Managerial Ability and Capital Structure on Farm Firm Growth." M.S. thesis, Purdue University Library, June 1966. ProQuest (AAT 9666404).

49. Rachel Stegemoeller, "Shidai Manhua and the Challenges of Modernity" (B.A. thesis, Colgate University, Spring 2005), 23.

Stegemoeller, Rachel. "Shidai Manhua and the Challenges of Modernity." B.A. thesis, Colgate University, Spring 2005.

Unpublished Manuscript from the Colgate Archives

Materials from the Archives should have an exact citation for the item in the notes, with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

50. Orrin E. Dunlap Jr., “Communications in Space,” 1962, M2001, Orrin E. Dunlap, Jr. papers, Special Collections and University Archives, Colgate University Libraries.

Dunlap, Jr. Papers. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Unpublished Photograph from the Colgate Archives

Materials from the Archives should have an exact citation for the item in the notes, with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

51. Photograph of Willow Path, Undated, A1000, Buildings and Grounds collection, Special Collections and University Archives, Colgate University Libraries.

Buildings and Grounds Collection. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Unpublished Letters and Correspondence in the Colgate Archives

Materials from the Archives should have an exact citation for the item in the notes, with a shorter bibliographic citation for the collection.

52. William M. White to L. York, 1864 February 7, M2027, York family papers, Special Collections and University Archives, Colgate University Libraries.

York Family Papers. Special Collections and University Archives. Colgate University Libraries.

Colgate Yearbooks and published primary materials in the Colgate Archives

53. Colgate University, Board of Trustees Minutes, vol. 14, 1966-1969 (Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1969).

Colgate University. Board of Trustees Minutes, vol. 14, 1966-1969. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1969.

54. Colgate University, Salmagundi, 1934 (Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1934).

Colgate University. Salmagundi, 1934. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1934.

54. Colgate University, Salmagundi, 1937 (Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1937) 20.

Colgate University. Salmagundi, 1937. Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 1937. http://diglib.colgate.edu

Lectures, including presentations and course lectures

For course lectures, use the name of the course as the name of the presentation.

55. Claudia Rankine, "Citizen: An American Lyric" (poetry reading, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, October 21, 2015).

Rankine, Claudia. "Citizen: An American Lyric." Poetry reading. Colgate University. Hamilton, NY, October 21, 2015.

55. Anna Rios-Rojas, "American School" (class lecture, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, November 3, 2015).

Rios-Rojas, Anna. "American School." Class lecture. Colgate University. Hamilton, NY, November 3, 2015.

55. Josh Radnor, "An Evening with Josh Radnor: Screenwriting Master Class" (lecture, Andrew W Mellon Foundation and Central New York Humanities Corridor, Hamilton, NY, September 24, 2015).

Radnor, Josh. "An Evening with Josh Radnor: Screenwriting Master Class." Lecture. Andrew W Mellon Foundation and Central New York Humanities Corridor. Hamilton, NY, September 24, 2015.

Datasets

56. Sharon Milberger, Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001, ICPSR version, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414.

Milberger, Sharon. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Detroit: Wayne State University, 2002. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414.v1.