Skip to Main Content

Citation Style Guides


These guidelines are based on the advice from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, published in 2019, as well as the APA Style Blog. Design and layout of materials is based on Diana Hacker's "Research and Documentation Online, 5th edition" accessed March 2014. This style guide is most often used in courses for Social Sciences and Natural Sciences. Read the Purdue OWL page on the updates to the 7th edition for more information.

Standard Book Format
LastName, Initial. (Year). Book title. Publisher.
Standard Article Format

LastName, Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(issue), page-range.

Special Tips and General Rules:

  • 7th edition no longer requires the "retrieves from" on URL citations, unless you are including an access date. Include the date you retrieved the item if it is something that is likely to change (such as a Wikipedia article). Ex. "Retrieved January 3, 2015 from:" .Also, include the title of the website with the title of the webpage. 
  • Always use italics for the journal title, book title, and the journal volume.
  • Do not use quotemarks for the title of a journal article.
  • If you can't find the date, then use n.d. for "no date," even in the In Text citation.
  • DOI's should include the prefix before the DOI number, so that it is an active link. 
  • In the bibliography, include up to 20 names of authors. 
  • The 7th edition no longer requires the place of publication, just the publisher's name. 

For a tutorial on creating APA-style citations, please see the APA Style Guide website., or view this video.

Reference List/Bibliography

Books (general example)


In-text citations use the author's last name and the year of publication, but for direct quotations, you should include the page number. 

In Text: (Coombs, 2010) or (Coombs, 2010, pp. 45) for a direct quote. For unpaginated books: (Coombs, 2010, Chapter 1, Section 1, para. 9)

Bibliography: Coombs, N. (2010). Making online teaching accessible: Inclusive course design for students with disabilities. Jossey-Bass.

Electronic/Online Version of a Print Book or Online Only Book

7th edition no longer requires you to identify the format of the book, platform, or device (i.e. Kindle or Amazon), but requires you to identify the publisher. 

In Text: (Coombs, 2010)

Coombs, N. (2010). Making online teaching accessible: Inclusive course design for students with disabilities. Jossey-Bass.

In Text: (Kastner, 2013)

Kastner, C. (2013). Jaune Quick-To-See Smith: an American modernist. University of New Mexico Press.

Book with 1 Author

In Text: (Early, 1997)

Early, F. H. (1997). A world without war: how U.S. feminists and pacifists resisted World War I. Syracuse University Press.

Book with 2 ore more Authors

List up to seven authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author. Books with 2-5 authors, include all the authors' names in the parenthetical and bibliography. Books with 6-7 authors, include only the first author's name and then use "et al." in the in-text notes; list all the authors' names in the bibliography. Books with 8 or more authors, list up to the first 20 authors followed by three ellipses and the last author's name in the bibliography.  Use the first author's name and "et al." in the parenthetical citation. For works with more than 21 authors, use an ellipsis between the 19th and final author; there should be no more than 20 names.

In Text: (Bailey, Schneider, and Vander Ark 2013)

Bailey, J., Schneider, C., & Vander Ark, T. (2013). Navigating the digital shift: implementation strategies for blended and online learning. Digital Learning Now!

Book with an Organization as the author

If the publisher and author is the same, then just use "author" in place of the publisher name. If the publisher is NOT the same as the author, then give the publisher's name as normal.

In Text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2013) for 1st citation, (APA, 2013) for every cite after.

American Psychological Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5th ed.). Author.

Book with an Unknown author

Use a shortened version of the title for the in text citation, making sure to include the first word (that is not an article A, An, or The).

In Text: (Beowulf, 1892).

Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon epic poem. (1892). D.C. Heath & Co.

Multiple books by the same author (in bibliography)

In the bibliography, when you have several books by the same author, you can replace the author's name with 6 hyphens for all subsequent entries, arranged alphabetically by book title.

Goodman, N. (1965a). Fact, fiction and forecast. Bobbs-Merrill.

Goodman, N. (1965b). Languages of art: an approach to a theory of symbols. Bobbs-Merrill.

Edited volume without an author

In Text: (Jarrett, 2014).

Jarrett, G. A. (Ed.). (2014). The Wiley Blackwell anthology of African American literature. Wiley-Blackwell.

Edited volume with an author

In Text: (Gatewood, 2005,).

Gatewood, C. B. (2005). Lt. Charles Gatewood and his Apache Wars memoir (L. Kraft, Ed.). University of Nebraska Press.

Book that has been translated

In Text: (Tolstoy, 1982).

Tolstoy, L. (1982). War and peace (R. Edmonds, Trans.). Penguin Books. (Original work published 1978)

2nd edition and later editions

In Text: (Nelmes, 2012).

Nelmes, J. (Ed.). (2012). Introduction to film studies (5th ed.). Routledge.

Single volume in a multi-volume set

In Text: (Proust, 1957)

Proust, M. (1957). Remembrance of things past: Vol. 12. Time regained (A. Mayor, Trans.). Chatto & Windus.

Multiple volumes in a multi-volume set

If you use all volumes in a set, use "Vols." directly after the title. In your citation, refer to the volume and page when citing a specific section of a volume. 

In Text: (Miles, 2015) or (Miles, 2015, Vol. 2) or "In Miles's (2015) second volume, it is stated... (p. 115)."

Miles, J. (Ed.). (2015). The Norton anthology of world religions (Vols. 1-2). Norton & Co., Inc.

Single story in an anthology or chapter in an edited book

In Text: (Heywood, 1533/2014).

Heywood, J. (2014). The Play of the Weather. In G. Walker (Ed.), The Oxford anthology of Tudor drama (pp. 118-143). Oxford University Press. (Original work published ca. 1533)

Single story or book chapter republished from other source

In Text: (Piaget, 1970/1988)  

Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget's theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, Wiley)

Quoting from the Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword.

In Text: (Ryan, 2013).

Ryan, A. (2013). Foreword. In I. Berlin, Karl Marx, (5th ed., pp. xix-xxix). Princeton University Press.

Republished book

In Text: (Daniken, 1969/1980).

Daniken, E. von. (1980). Chariots of the gods? Unsolved mysteries of the past. Berkley Publishing. (Original work published 1969)

Book with a title in its title

In Text: (Sarat & Umphrey).

Sarat, A., & Umphrey, M. M. (2013). Reimagining To kill a mockingbird: Family, community, and the possibility of equal justice under law. University of Massachusetts Press.

Single book in a series

In Text: (Wilder, 2012).

Wilder, L. I. (2012). Little house in the big woods. The Little House Books. Library of America.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry

In Text: (Merriam-Webster's)

Procrastinate. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from

In text: ("Yacht," 2015) or ("Yacht," 2015)

Yacht. (2015). In Encyclopaedia Britannica online.

In Text: (Ochner, 2002).

Ochner, N. M. (2002). Enchi Fumiko. In K. Christensen & D. Levinson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330). Charles Scribner's Sons.

Sacred or religious texts

Sacred or religious texts are not included in the reference list. (see also the SBL Handbook of Style or History of Religions for more texts.)

In Text: [Torah/Bible] (Matthew 10:16, King James Version).

In Text: [Qur'an] (Qur'an 5:8).

Quoting a source that is quoted in another source

If the original source is not available, then use "quoted in" for the in text citation with some message in the text about the original source. Cite only the secondary source in the bibliography.

In Text: Anne Savage (quoted in Brownsworth, 2014, p. 70) translated the passage as...

Brownworth, L. (2014). The sea wolves: A history of the vikings. Crux Publishing.

Citing several references in the same in text citation

Your in-text citation should include all the resources you cited for that sentence, but individual resources should be listed separately in your reference list. They should be in alphabetical order.

In Text: (Cox, 2009; Nelmes, 2012; Smith, 2015).

Journal Articles (print and online)

Article in a print journal

Follow the same rules for multiple authors as you do with books. If there is a volume and issue number, italicize the volume.

In Text: (Byford, 2012).

Byford, A. (2012). The Russian diaspora in international relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain. Europe-Asia Studies, 64(4), 715-735.

Article in an online journal

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the URL of the article. Page numbers should be included if they are available. If there are no page numbers, use some sort of locator in your note such as paragraph number or subheading.

In Text: (Subotic, 2013).

Subotic, J. (2013). Remembrance, public narratives, and obstacles to justice in the Western Balkans. Studies in Social Justice, 7(2), 265-283.

Journal article from an Article Database (such as Academic Search Premier or JSTOR)

For online journals, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the URL of the journal's homepage (not the database). Page numbers should be included if they are available. 

In Text: (Byford, 2012).

Byford, A. (2012). The Russian diaspora in international relations: ‘Compatriots’ in Britain. Europe-Asia Studies, 64(4): 715-735.

In Text: (Byford, 2012)

Byford, A. (2012). The Russian diaspora in international relations: 'Compatriots' in Britain. Europe-Asia Studies, 64(4): 715-735.

Article in a print popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as Cosmo or People)

In Text: (Koonse, 2015).

Koonse, E. (2015, September 14). Mind, body & spirit. Publisher’s Weekly, 25-28.

Article in an online popular (non-scholarly) magazine (such as

For online magazines, give the DOI if it is available; otherwise, use the "stable" or "persistent" URL of the article. If page numbers are included, use them; otherwise they are not required.

In Text: (Gorenstein, 2015).

Gorenstein, C. (2015, April 15). Jon Stewart hammers GOP over incoherent Iran warmongering. Salon.

Article in a popular (non-scholarly) magazine from an Article Database

You do not have to include the database unless the item is extremely hard to find without that information.

In Text: (Keating, 2015).

Keating, C. (2015, March 30). Hope after tragedy raising quadruplets on my own. People, 83(13), 58-61.

Book or movie review

Include a note that it is a review of an item, and indicate the media type in brackets after the title followed by the title & author. For a film review, include the year the film was released as well.

In Text: (Wong, 2010)

Wong, K. 2010. The Changing Arctic Landscape [Review of the book The Changing Arctic Landscape, by K. Tape]. Scientific American, 303(2), 90.

In Text: (Johnson, 2012)

Johnson, B. D. (2012). A Knight to remember [Review of the film The Dark Knight Rises, 2012]. Maclean's, 125(28), 54-56.

Letter to the editor

In Text: (Silverman, 2016).

Silverman, S. C. (2016, January 12). Who needs an extremist agenda? [Letter to the editor]. New York Times.

Article in a print newspaper

In Text: (Rubin, 2015).

Rubin, A. J. (2015, October 5). Doctors Without Borders exits Afghan city as fight worsens. New York Times, p. A1.

Article in an online newspaper

Do not use the full URL if it is very long.

In Text: (Rubin, 2015).

Rubin, A. J. (2015, October 4). Doctors Without Borders says it is leaving Kunduz after strike on hospital. New York Times.

Newspaper article from a database

Use the URL for the homepage of the newspaper, not the database, or use the DOI if it is available.

In Text: (Rubin, 2015).

Rubin, A. J. (2015, October 5). Doctors Without Borders exits Afghan city as fight worsens. New York Times.

Newspaper article with an Unknown Author

If the article is unsigned or the author unknown, then use a short version of the title that includes the first word not counting any articles (a, an, the). The year should come directly after the title in the bibliographic entry.

In Text: ("Rein in Online," 2015).

"Rein in online fantasy sports gambling." (2015, October 5). New York Times, p. A22.

In Text: ("5 Ways," 2015).

"5 ways to save on holiday airfare." (2015, October 22). New York Times.

Other Sources


Include an author if given, title (with description in brackets), date of publication/modification (if available; if not available, then use n.d.), and URL. If it is a single page from a larger site, include the site name. Include a retrieved from date if it is likely the material will change over time. Use your best judgment on how the material should be presented in order for it to be clear to the audience.

In Text: (Grisafe, 2012).

Grisafe, M. (2012, November 16). Can culture create mental Disease? The rise of “hikikomori” in the wake of economic downturn in Japan [Website]. Mind the Science Gap. Retrieved January 11, 2015 from

In Text: (Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, 2015).

The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive [Online archive]. (2015, April 3). Retrieved November 8, 2015 from

Single article, page or story from a website

If it is a document, report, newsletter or other official article from an organization or agency, then you should italicize the title of the item and include the name of the organization or agency. If it's just an article or story on a website, then do not italicize it.

In Text: (Banerjee, 2007).

Banerjee, J. (2007, June 14). Queen's College and the "Ladies' College" [Website article]. The Victorian Web. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from

In Text: (Cosmides & Tooby, 1997)

Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1997). Psicologia evolutiva: A primer [Evolutionary psychology: A primer] (J.R. Sanfuentes, Trans.). University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Evolutionary Psychology

Online discussion boards or archived listservs

In Text: (Watt, 2015).

Watt, D. F. (2015, January 5). Re: Wildlife Lenses for Sony A77 [Online forum comment]. Digital Photography Review forum.

Personal communication (including non-public emails)

Personal communications are not included in the references list.

In Text: In an email to the author on October 8, 2015, Jesi Buell said...

In Text: (J. Buell, e-mail message to the author, October 8, 2015).

In Text: (Jesi Buell, pers. comm.).

Blog post (blogger, wordpress, tumblr, etc.)

If the author is unknown or uses a pseudonym to refer to a group posting on a single blog, you can use that pseudonym/username instead. Comments on a blog post should be attributed to the author of the comment, not the author of the blog.

In Text: (Nye, 2011).

Nye, B. (2011, July 5). Hubble's Millionth Observation [Blog post]. Your Place in Space blog.

In Text: (Ware, 2015).

Ware, B. (2015, June 14). Tonight I Glimpsed LightSail [Blog comment]. Your Place in Space blog.

In Text: (medievalpoc, 2015).

medievalpoc. (2015). Pieter Brueghel the Younger [Tumblr post]. People of Color in European Art History blog. Retrieved October 21, 2015 from


If you are citing several Facebook posts, you may choose to use a signal phrase in the text to identify the date/time of the specific posts, and then cite the entire Facebook page in the bibliography. If you are referring to a Facebook page in general and not to a specific post, it is sufficient to use a textual citation and not include it in your reference list. For individual's Facebook pages, use the LastName, Initial format, but then include their first name in brackets afterwards.

In Text: (Colgate University, 2015).

Colgate University. (2015, May 18). Timeline [Facebook page]. Retrieved June 18, 2015 from

In Text: On April 1st, 6:01 a.m., President Herbst announced the opening of a dental school. By April 15th, 8:25 p.m., the university president needed to post a formal explanation that the school was not actually happening, and that it was, indeed, an April Fool's trick (Colgate University, 2014).

Colgate University. (2014). Timeline [Facebook page].

In Text (this will not be listed in the references at the end): Colgate University posts news and events to their facebook page (

Twitter (or other microblog like Sina Weibo)

If you are citing the entire twitter account and not a specific post, you can cite the entire site in your text without including it in the reference list (see Facebook citing above). If you know the user's real name, then use it and follow it with the twitter username in brackets. Otherwise, simply use the twitter username. Use the content of the tweet as the title.

In Text: (Obama, 2015).

Obama, B. [potus]. (2015, October 16). Congrats @HokuleaWWV on reaching Africa—midpoint of worldwide voyage to spread message of caring for the one planet we've got. #MalamaHonua [Tweet].

In Text: President Barack Obama tweets regularly about his ongoing work (


Treat podcast episodes like a single story from a website, but add (if available) the author's/speaker's name(s), title of the podcast, and episode number.

In Text: (Private Cabin, 2015).

Private Cabin. (2015, October 20). Freddy vs. Jason (Episode 221) [Audio podcast]. We Hate Movies.

Online video (such as YouTube)

Consider the uploader as the author. If you know the name, use that as the author regardless of who is actually the producer of the video. Include the username in brackets after their name. If you only have the username, then just use that (no brackets needed).

In Text: (CBS News, 2012).

CBS News. (2012, March 11). Khan Academy: The Future of Education? [Video file].

In Text: (Puruzu, 2015).

Puruzu, K. [mismailj19]. (2015, May 8). Chopin - Complete Nocturnes [Video file].

In Text: (Esposito, Petok, Pollack & Hoffman, 2012)

Esposito, J. (Writer), Petok, M. (Executive Producer), Pollack, C. (Executive Producer), & Hoffman, J. (Executive Producer). (2012). Cold Storage [Television series webisode]. In Hurd, G.A. & Alpert, D. (Executive Producers), The Walking Dead Webisodes.

Film (DVD, Blu-Ray, Streaming)

Include the writer, director, or producer as author (whichever is more important for your paper).

In Text: (Dark Knight Rises, 2012).

Nolen, C. (Director). (2012). The Dark Knight Rises [DVD].

In Text: (Gimple, 2014).

Gimple, S. M. (Writer). (2014). "No Sanctuary." The Walking Dead season 5, episode 1. Directed by Greg Nicotero. Aired October 12. Anchor Bay Entertainment, 2015. DVD.

In Text: (Selick, 1993).

Selick, H. (Director). (1993). The Nightmare Before Christmas [film].

Sound recording (LP, CD, MP3, Streaming)

Use the conductor, composer, or performer as the author, depending on which one is more important for your citation. Include any identifying information such as orchestra, conductor, featured performers, recording date, publication year, format, number of discs, and publisher number if available. If this is from the Colgate collection, consult the library catalog record for basic important information to include. Audiobooks and other published recordings should be treated the same way as musical recordings.

In Text: (James, 1990).

James, E. (1990). Stickin' to my Guns [33 1/3 rpm]. Island Record.

In Text: (Puccini, 2005).

Puccini, G. (2005). "Nessun Dorma." From Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor). London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Zubin Mehta. Luciano Pavarotti - The Best. Decca, MP3 file. Downloaded May 15, 2009.

In Text: (Chopin, 2015).

Chopin, F. (2015). Nocturn Op. 55 No. 10. Performed by Robin Scheidegger. Streaming Audio. Accessed October 21, 2015.

In Text: (Brooks, 2013).

Brooks, M. (2013). World War Z: An oral history of the zombie war. Performed by F. Murray Abraham, Alan Alda, Rene Auberjonois, et al. Complete edition. Random House Audio, 10 compact discs.

Musical Score or composition

In Text: (Mozart, 1951).

Mozart, W. A. (1951). The Marriage of Figaro: An Opera in Four Acts. Libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. G. Schirmer.


Include as much information as you can, including the medium, date of creation, size of artwork, museum location, database & database number, and URL. If you are citing an image out of a book, cite it as a "single story in an anthology."

In Text: (Picasso, 1906).

Picasso, P. (1906). Gertrude Stein [Oil on canvas]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.

In Text: (Abbott, 1927).

Abbott, B. (1927). Julien Levy [Gelatin silver print]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY. Retrieved October 9, 2015 from

In Text: (Durer, 1520).

Durer, A. (1520). Head of a Woman [Chalk on paper]. British Museum, London, UK. ARTstor.


In Text: (Liu, 2015).

Liu, C. (2015). This is not a Play about Sex. Directed by Charity Whyte and Providence Ryan. Colgate University Community, Hamilton, NY, October 3.


Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software].

Mobile app

WebMD. (2015). Medscape (Version 5.2.2) [Mobile application software].

The Soulmen GbR. (2015). Ulysses (Version 2.1.1) [Mobile application software].

McMinn, J. (2012). Writer (Version 1.1) [Mobile application software].

Government document

In Text: (US Senate, 2015).

U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (2015). The Case for Climate Change Action: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, 108th Cong., 1st sess. GPO.

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

If the thesis or dissertation has a preferred citation, use it. Otherwise include the DOI or URL as available. If found through a commercial database, then just use the name of the database and any identification numbers.

In Text: (Navarro, 2006).

Navarro, E. (2006). SimSE: A software engineering simulation environment for software process education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Irvine.

In Text: (Patrick, 1966).

Patrick, G. S. (1966). The impact of managerial ability and capital structure on farm firm growth (Masters thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 9666404).

In Text: (Stegemoeller,  2005, p. 23).

Stegemoeller, R. (2005). Shidai Manhua and the Challenges of Modernity (Unpublished bachelors thesis). Colgate University, Hamilton, NY.

Unpublished Manuscript from the Colgate Archives

Archival material typically requires more specific information than other types of information. Follow the format of: LastName, Initial. (Year, Month day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, box number, file number, file name, etc.). Archive, City, State.

In Text: (Dunlap, 1962).

Dunlap, Jr., O. E. (1962). Communications in Space [Manuscript draft]. Orrin E. Dunlap, Jr. Papers (M2001). Colgate University, Special Collections and University Archives, Hamilton, NY.

Unpublished Photograph from the Colgate Archives

If the photograph is untitled, then a description of it should be put into brackets. If you're unsure of the date, you can put it as n.d. for no date, or give a rough estimate based on the information you have. You may be able to use Colgate University as the author if it is an image that was produced by the University. Check with your professor and the University Archivist for help.

In Text: In an undated black and white photograph of Willow Path, the geese appear prominently, while an image from 1952 shows that they are missing.

In Text: (Willow Path photograph, ca. 1930) 

In Text: (Willow Path postcard, 1952)

In Text: (Colgate University, 1952)

[Untitled black and white photograph of Willow Path]. (ca. 1930). Buildings and Grounds Collection (Box 19, File A1000). Colgate University, Special Collections and University Archives, Hamilton, NY.

[Willow Path postcard]. (1952).  Buildings and Grounds Collection (Box 19, File A1001). Colgate University, Special Collections and University Archives, Hamilton, NY.

Colgate University. (1952). [Willow Path postcard]. Buildings and Grounds Collection (Box 19, File A1001). Author, Special Collections and University Archives, Hamilton, NY.

Unpublished Letters and Correspondence in the Colgate Archives

In Text: William White wrote in a letter to L. York on February 7, 1964 to say...  OR (White, 1964).

White, W. (1964, February 7). [Letter to L. York]. York Family Papers (M2027). Colgate University, Special Collections and University Archives, Hamilton, NY.

Colgate Yearbooks and published primary materials in the Colgate Archives

In Text: (Colgate University, 1969, p. 53).

Colgate University. (1969). Board of Trustees Minutes, vol. 14, 1966-1969. Colgate University Press.

In Text: (Colgate University, 1934, p. 90).

Colgate University. (1934). Salmagundi, 1934. Colgate University Press.

In Text: (Colgate University, 1937, p. 20).

Colgate University. (1937). Salmagundi, 1937. Colgate University Press.

Lectures, including presentations, speeches and course lectures

For course lectures, use the name of the course as the name of the presentation.

In Text: (Rankine, 2015).

Rankine, C. (2015, October 21). Citizen: An American Lyric. Poetry reading at Colgate University, Hamilton, NY.

In Text: (Rios-Rojas, 2015).

Rios-Rojas, A. (2015, November 3). American School. Class lecture at Colgate University, Hamilton, NY.

In Text: (Radnor, 2015).

Radnor, J. (2015, September 24). An Evening with Josh Radnor: Screenwriting Master Class. Lecture at Colgate University, Hamilton, NY.


In Text: (Milberger, 2002).

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [Data file and code book].

Legal materials

You should follow the Bluebook rules for legal citations.

In Text: (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).